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Editor-in-chief
Maria Stella Graziani

Deputy Director
Martina Zaninotto

Associate Editors
Ferruccio Ceriotti
Davide Giavarina
Bruna Lo Sasso
Giampaolo Merlini
Martina Montagnana
Andrea Mosca
Paola Pezzati
Rossella Tomaiuolo
Matteo Vidali

EIC Assistant
Francesco Busardò

International Advisory Board Khosrow Adeli Canada
Sergio Bernardini Italy
Marcello Ciaccio Italy
Eleftherios Diamandis Canada
Philippe Gillery France
Kjell Grankvist Sweden
Hans Jacobs The Netherlands
Eric Kilpatrick UK
Magdalena Krintus Poland
Giuseppe Lippi Italy
Mario Plebani Italy
Sverre Sandberg Norway
Ana-Maria Simundic Croatia
Tommaso Trenti Italy
Cas Weykamp The Netherlands
Maria Willrich USA
Paul Yip Canada


Publisher
Biomedia srl
Via L. Temolo 4, 20126 Milano

Responsible Editor
Giuseppe Agosta

Editorial Secretary
Chiara Riva
Biomedia srl
Via L. Temolo 4, 20126 Milano
Tel. 0245498282
email: biochimica.clinica@sibioc.it

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ISSN print: 0393 – 0564
ISSN digital: 0392- 7091



BC: Articoli scritti da D. Debbia

Confronto tra un metodo nefelometrico ed un metodo turbidimetrico per la determinazione delle catene leggere libere sieriche: punti di forza e criticità
Comparison between a turbidimetric and a nephelometric method for the measurement of serum free light chains: strengths and weaknesses
<p>Background: monoclonal gammopathies include a broad spectrum of pathologies, and free light chains (FLC) measurement is recommended by guidelines for the diagnosis, follow up and prognosis of plasma cell dyscrasia. The aim of the study is to compare the measurement of FLC performed with two different analytical platforms, a nephelometer and a turbidimeter, in order to assess the analytical and diagnostic agreement.<br />Methods: 87 consecutive samples received by the laboratory with a request of FLC measurement were analyzed on nephelometer Immage 800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) and turbidimeter Optilite (The Binding Site, UK), using the same antibodies (Freelite, The Binding Site, UK).<br />Results: by applying the Passing-Bablok regression and the Bland-Altman analysis, a proportional and constant systematic error but non-significant bias for FLC ratio (rFLC) has been observed. By applying the Weighted Cohen&rsquo;s Kappa (WK) test to the rFLC values, an excellent diagnostic agreement between the two instruments has been shown, considering both the normal range (0.26 &ndash; 1.65) (WK=0.87) and the diagnostic range for multiple myeloma (&lt;0.01 or &gt;100) (WK=0.84).<br />Conclusions: Although there are statistical differences between the measurements performed by the two instruments, these do not affect the diagnostic agreement, that is excellent. Nevertheless, the turbidimeter is provided with a software that can automatically detect the antigen excess; by diluting further the samples automatically, it performs fewer dilutions than the nephelometer and provides a wider range of measurement, especially for low concentrations. These characteristics assist the operator both during the analysis and the validation phases of the results, saving time and resources. On the basis of the results of the study, it can be concluded that the turbidimeter shows better performances compared to the nephelometer.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 44(2) 149-156
Contributi Scientifici - Scientific Papers
 
Una paziente con dolori ossei diffusi: il ruolo del laboratorio nel diagnosticarne la causa
A female patient with diffuse bone pain: the role of the clinical laboratory in the diagnostic process
D. Debbia  |  P. Natali  |  L. Ferrara  |  M. Varani  |  G. Longo  |  T. Trenti  | 
<p>Multiple myeloma (MM) represents 10% of all hematologic malignancies; in 15% of MM the monoclonal component consists of only free light chains. A 53 year-old patient performs at the Corelab laboratory (AOU-AUSL Modena) blood tests for bone pain. Serum electrophoresis shows hypogammaglobulinemia (5,5 g/L). The laboratory professional decides to carry on further studies: a serum immunofixation that highlighted the presence of kappa free light chains not traceable to any heavy chain and the measure of the serum free light chains (sFLC) with the following results: FLC-&kappa; 26 777 mg/L (i.r. 3.3-19.4); FLC-&lambda; 6.15 mg/L (i.r. 5.7-26.3); ratio FLC (rFLC), 435.31 (i.r. 0.26-1.65). The light chain MM is a type of MM difficult to recognize. The laboratory professional&#39;s own initiative defines a procedure of &quot;personalized medicine&quot; oriented to to the patient&#39;s needs. The expertise of the laboratory professional is crucial in assuring the patient the best outcome when carried out on the basis of the available guidelines.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 43(4) e35-e36
Casi Clinici - Case Report
 
Sensibilità al glutine: il test di attivazione dei basofili (BAT) può aiutare nella diagnosi differenziale?
Gluten hypersensitivity: basophil activation test (BAT) may help in the differential diagnosis
T. Scacchetti  |  D. Debbia  |  E. Boni  |  T. Trenti  | 
<p>Gluten hypersensitivity: basophil activation test (BAT) may help in the differential diagnosis? The main forms&nbsp;of gluten-related disorders are wheat allergy (WA), celiac disease (CD) and possibly immune-mediated disease&nbsp;(gluten sensitivity). S-IgE play an essential role in WA. For CD tests available are anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG)&nbsp;IgA, anti-endomysium (EMA) and deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP) antibodies IgG particular. For other immunemediated&nbsp;diseases there is currently no test available. The usefulness of basophil activation test (BAT) in anaphylactic&nbsp;adverse reactions, late-onset allergy has been demonstrated. We report the case of a woman of 46 years old with&nbsp;disorders of wheat tied overt clinical signs, intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms, whose tests above were all&nbsp;negative. Only the BAT showed a stimulation of basophils exposed (52.9%) to extract wheat. We diagnosed gluten&nbsp;sensitivity (GS) on the basis of an algorithm for the differential diagnosis of gluten-related disorders, including CD,&nbsp;GS and WA. We believe that the BAT confirms a hypersensitivity reaction to wheat not-IgE-mediated, not CD.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 40(4) e31-e34
Casi clinici - Case report
 
Le criticità della fase post-analitica della determinazione delle crioglobuline: risultati di uno studio pilota condotto in Emilia-Romagna
Critical issues of the post-analytical phase for cryoglobulin determination: results of a pilot study carried out in Emilia-Romagna, Italy
<p>Introduction: cryoglobulins (CRG) are immunoglobulins that precipitate at low temperature and dissolve at 37 &deg;C. The difficulties associated to the analisys of cryoproteins, are related to the pre-analytical phase, including the collection of the sample and the maintenance of the heat chain; to the analytical phase, because of the many manual steps involved and, to the post-analytical phase as well, due to the operator-depending interpretation of immunofissation (IFE). The Department of Laboratory Medicine of Modena promoted a pilot study to verify the incidence of the post-analytical phase in the accuracy of the CRG analisys.<br />Methods: 30 images of CRG-IFE plates were selected and sent to 8 centers of the Emilia Romagna region that agreed to join the project; 13 different laboratory professionals have been involved in the IFE interpretation.<br />Results: out of 30 IFE, only 3 (10%) were interpreted with the excellent concordance of 100% by all the participants; 10 of them (33%) showed a good concordance, 75-99%; 14 (47%) sufficient concordance, 50-74%; 3 (10%) a poor concordance &lt;50%. Out of 8 centers involved, 4 participated with more than one operator. Arbitrarily assuming that the analysis can be considered acceptable when at least 75% of the participants agree on the interpretation of the gels, the results show that only in 43% of cases the acceptability was reached.<br />Discussion: this pilot study highlights the need to harmonize the CRG determination, not only the pre-analytical and analytical procedures, but also the post-analytical phase. To this end, it could be highly recommended that the clinical laboratories participate to external quality assessment control programs, as the one promoted by UK-NEQAS. Moreover, scientific societies and their Study Groups, can play an important role by promoting the harmonization of CGR evaluation.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 17(1)
Contributi Scientifici - Scientific Papers